|A book by|
William H. Calvin
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 98195-1800 USA
The Throwing Madonna|
Essays on the Brain
Copyright 1983, 1991 by William H. Calvin.
You may download this for personal reading but may not redistribute or archive without permission (exception: teachers should feel free to print out a chapter and photocopy it for students).
Scanned, OCR'ed, and webbed -- but NOT proofread (14 Jan 97)
General ReferencesThe best effect of any book is that it excites the reader to self-activity.
THOMAS CARLYLE[1997 update: I'd particularly recommend The Calvin Bookshelf]
Alexander, Richard D. The Biology of Moral Systems. Aldine de Gruyter (1987).
Barash, David. The Whisperings Within: Evolution and the Origin of Human Nature. New York: Harper & Row (1979). An introduction to sociobiology, highly recommended.
Blakemore, Colin. Mechanics of the Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1977). In the valuable British tradition of explaining science to laymen, it is especially good on developmental aspects such as nature vs. nurture.
Calvin, William H. The Ascent of Mind: Ice Age Climates and the Evolution of Intelligence. New York: Bantam(1990).
Calvin, William H. The Cerebral Symphony: Seashore Reflections on the Structure of Consciousness. New York: Bantam(1989).
Calvin, William H. The River that Flows Uphill: A Journey from the Big Bang to the Big Brain. Sierra Club Books (1987).Since this book's 1991 revision, there are more:Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann, Inside the Brain: Mapping the Cortex, Exploring the Neuron. New York: New American Library (1980).
William H. Calvin and George A. Ojemann (1994). Conversations with Neil's Brain: The Neural Nature of Thought and Language (Addison-Wesley trade book). William H. Calvin (1996). How Brains Think. New York: Basic Books (Science Masters). William H. Calvin (1996). The Cerebral Code: Thinking a Thought in the Mosaics of the Mind, MIT Press.
Darlington, Philip J., Jr., Evolution for Naturalists: The Simple Principles and the Complex Reality. New York: Wiley (1980). A succinct summary of the major arguments in evolutionary theory for the past century; Professor Darlington also introduces throwing's effects on brain evolution.
Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: Norton (1986).
Gregory, Richard, ed. The Oxford Companion to the Mind. New York: Oxford University Press (1987).
Hubel, David H., ed. The Brain. San Francisco: Freeman (1979). Also a special issue of Scientific American 241(3) (September 1979)
Humphrey, Nicholas. The Inner Eye. London: Faber and Faber (1986). The role of social life in shaping up intelligence.
Konner, Melvin. The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston (1982).
Konner, Melvin. Why the Reckless Survive. New York: Viking (1990).
Minsky, Marvin. The Society of Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster (1986).
Pagels, Heinz. The Dreams of Reason. New York: Simon & Schuster (1988).
Passingham, Richard. The Human Primate. San Francisco: Freeman (1982). He poses the question: what would it take to make a chimpanzee human?
de Waal, Frans. Peacemaking Among Primates. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1989).
Blinkov, Samuil M., and Il'ya I. Glezer. The Human Brain in Figures and Tables: A Quantitative Handbook. New York: Basic Books (1964, translated from the Russian in 1968).
Rockel, A. J., R. W. Hiorns, and T. P. S. Powell. "Numbers of neurons through full depth of neocortex." Proceedings of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 118:371 (1974). These authors would raise the 20 billion estimate for human cortex to about 50 billion.
1 The Throwing Madonna
Annett, Marian. "A classification of hand preference by association analysis." British Journal of Psychology 61:303 -321 (1970).
Calvin, William H. "Did throwing stones shape hominid brain evolution?" Ethology and Sociobiology 3:115-124 (1982).
Estioko-Griffin, A. "Daughters of the forest." Natural History 95(5):3~43 (1986).
Goodall, Jane van Lawick. "The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream preserve." Animal Behaviour Monographs 1(3):161-311 (1968). See p. 203 for throwing data.
Lee, Richard B. "What hunters do for a living, or how to make out on scarce resources." Pages 30-48 in Man the Hunter. Edited by R. B. Lee and I. DeVore. Chicago: Aldine (1968).
Lockard, Joan S., Paul C. Daley, and Virginia M. Gunderson. "Maternal and paternal differences in infant carry: U.S. and African data." American Naturalist 113:235-246 (1979).
Lovejoy, C. Owen. "The origin of man." Science 211 :341-350 (23 January 1981).
Oakley, Kenneth P. "Skill as a human possession." In Perspectives on Human Evolution. Edited by S. L. Washburn and P. Dolhinow. 2:14 -50. New York: Holt, Rinehart&Winston(1972).
Salk, Lee. "The role of the heartbeat in the relations between mother and infant." Scientific American 228(5):24-29 (1973).
Schmidt-Besserat, Denise. "Decipherment of the earliest tablets." Science 211:283-285 (1981).
Woolley, L. The Beginnings of Civilization. New York: New American Library (1963). To this chapter's brief history of writing should be added Woolley's following proviso on sounds: "Pictorial representation ends and true writing begins at the moment when an indubitable linguistic element first comes in, and that can only happen when signs have acquired a phonetic value. The gap which divides the pictogram from the hieroglyph and ultimately from the phonetic sign is so great that for most peoples it has proved impassable. It is to the credit of the Sumerians that they were able to bridge that gap.... [Their neighbors then invented their own scripts but were indebted to the Sumerians] for the basic conception that a written sign might represent not a thing but a sound."
2 The Lovable Cat: Mimicry Strikes Again
Eliot, T. S. "OId Possum's Book of Practical Cats." In The Complete Poems and Plays 1909-1950. New York: Harcourt (1952).
Fox, Michael W. Understanding Your Cat. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan (1974).
Hiam, Alexander W. "Airborne models and flying mimics." Natural History 91(4):42-49 (April 1982).
Lorenz, Konrad. "Ganzheit und Teil in der tierischen und menschlichen Gemeinschaft." 1950. Reprinted in Studies in animal and human behavior 2:115-195. Harvard University Press (1971).
Moore, Bruce R., and Susan Stuttard. "Dr. Guthrie and Felis domesticus Or: Tripping over the cat." Science 205:1031 -2 (1979).
Wickler, W. Mimicry in Plants and Animals. Translated by R. D. Martin. New York: McGraw-Hill (1974).
3 Woman the Toolmaker?
Boesch, Christophe, and Hedwige Boesch. "Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Ta~ National Park."American journal of Physical Anthropology 78:547 -573 (1989).
Boesch, Christophe, and Hedwige Boesch. "Sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees: a preliminary report." Journal of Human Evolution 10:585-593 (1981).
Ghiglieri, Michael P. East of the Mountains of the Moon. Free Press (1988).
Goodall, Jane. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1986).
Goodall, Jane. "Continuities between chimpanzee and human behavior." In Human Origins: Louis Leakey and the East African Evidence, volume 3 of Perspectives on Human Evolution. Edited by Glynn Ll. Isaac and Elizabeth R. McCown, pp. 81 -96. Menlo Park, Calif.: W. A. Benjamin (1976).
Goodall, Jane van Lawick. "Tool-using in primates and other vertebrates. " Advances in the Study of Behaviour 3: 195 -249 (1970).
Heltne, Paul G., and Linda A. Marquardt, editors. Understanding Chimpanzees. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1989).
Kawai, Masao. "Newly acquired precultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima islet." Primates 6:1 -30 (1965).
McGrew, William. ~Evolutionary implications of sex differences in chimpanzee predation and tool use." In The Great Apes, volume 5 of Perspectives on Human Evolution. Edited by David A. Hamburg and Elizabeth R. McCown, pp. 441-464. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/ Cummings (1979).
Oakley, Kenneth P. Man the Tool-maker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1964).
Pfeiffer, John. The Emergence of Man, Second Edition. New York: Harper & Row (1972).
Savage, T. S., and J. Wyman. "Observations on the external characters and habits of the Troglodytes niger (geoff) and on its organization." Boston Journal of Nature 5:417 -443 (1843-44).
4 Did Throwing Stones Lead to Bigger Brains?
Calvin, William H. "Did throwing stones shape hominid brain evolution?" Ethology and Sociabiology 3:115 -124 (1982).
Calvin, William H. "A stone's throw and its launch window: timing precision and its implications for language and hominid brains." Journal of Theoretical Biology. 104:121-135 (1983).
Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann. Inside the Brain: Mapping the Cortex, Exploring the Neuron. New York: New American Library (1980).
Clay, John R., and Robert DeHaan. "Fluctuations in interbeat interval in rhythmic heart-cell clusters." Biophysical Journal 28:377-389 (1979).
Clynes, Manfred, ed. Music, Mind, and Brain. New York: Plenum (1982).
Enright, James T. "Temporal precision in circadian systems: a reliable neuronal clock from unreliable components?" Science 209:1542-- 1544 (1980).
Kimura, Doreen. "Left-hemisphere control of oral and brachial movements and their relation to communication." Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., Series B B292:135-149 (1982).
Mateer, Catherine, and Doreen Kimura. "Impairment of non-verbal oral movements in aphasics." Brain and Language 4:262 -276 (1977).
McGlone, Jeannette. "Sex differences in human brain asymmetry: a critical survey." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:215 -263 (June 1980). Also see follow-up comments in June 1982 issue.
Ojemann, George A. "Brain mechanisms for language: Observations during neurosurgery." In Epilepsy: A Window to Brain Mechanisms. Edited by Joan S. Lockard and Arthur A. Ward, Jr., pp. 243-260. New York: Raven Press (1980).
Ojemann, George A., and Catherine Mateer. "Human language cortex: localization of memory, syntax, and sequential motor-phoneme identification systems." Science 205: 1401-1403 (28 September 1979).
5 The Ratchets of Social Evolution
Axelrod, Robert. The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books (1984).
Axelrod, Robert, and William D. Hamilton. "The evolution of cooperation." Science 211: 1390-1396 (1981).
Fried, Itzhak, Catherine Mateer, George Ojemann, Richard Wohns, and Paul Fedio. "Organization of visuospatial functions in human cortex: evidence from electrical stimulation." Brain 105:349-371 (1982).
Lockard, Joan S. "Studies of human social signals; theory, methods, and data." In Evolution of Human Social Behavior. Edited by J. S. Lockard. Amsterdam: Elsevier (1980).
May, Robert M. "The Evolution of Cooperation." Nature 292:291 -292 (1981).
Wilson, Edward O. On Human Nature. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1978).
6 The Computer as Metaphor in Neurobiology
Calvin, William H. "To spike or not to spike? Controlling the neuron's rhythm, preventing the ectopic beat." In Abnormal Nerves and Muscles as Impulse Generators. Edited by William J. Culp and Jose Ochoa, pp. 295-321. New York: Oxford University Press (1982)
Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann. Inside the Brain: Mapping the Cortex, Exploring the Neuron. New York: New American Library (1980).
Roberts, Alan, and Brian M. H. Bush, eds. Neurones Without Impulses. New York: Cambridge University Press (1981).
Selverston, Allen I., et al. "Are central pattern generators understandable?" Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:535-571 (1980).
Stevens, Charles F. "The neuron." Scientific American 241(3):55 -65 (September 1979).
7 Last Year in Jerusalem
Calvin, William H. "Normal repetitive firing and its pathophysiology." In Epilepsy: A Window to Brain Mechanisms. Edited by J. S. Lockard and A. A. Ward, Jr., pp. 97-121. New York: Raven Press (1980).
Calvin, William H., and Katherine Graubard. "Styles of neuronal computation." In The Neurosciences, Fourth Study Program. Edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, pp. 513-524. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press (1979).
Graubard, Katherine. "Synaptic transmission without action potentials: input-output properties of a non-spiking neuron." Journal of Neurophysiology 41:1014 -1015 (1978).
Graubard, Katherine, and William H. Calvin. "Presynaptic dendrites: implications of spikeless synaptic transmission and dendritic geometry." In The Neurosciences, Fourth Study Program. Edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, pp. 317-331. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press (1979).
Graubard, Katherine, Jonathan A. Raper, and Daniel K. Hartline. "Graded synaptic transmission between spiking neurons." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77:3733-3735 (1980).
Graubard, Katherine, and Daniel K. Hartline, "Full-wave rectification from a mixed electrical-chemical synapse." Science 237:535-537 (1987).
Katchalsky, Aharon, Vernon Rowland, and Robert Blumenthal. Dynamic Patterns of Brain Cell Assemblies. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press (1974).
Werman, Robert. "Let us build a nervous system: a fragment of an alleged ancient Hebrew manuscript reputedly found in the Judean desert." Progress in Neurobiology 11:309-313 (1978). A neurobiological and biophysical version of the creation myth, indeed presented as a Talmudic conversation between two angels. The original version was read at the Mount Scopus conference as an entertainment.
8 Computing Without Nerve Impulses
Bullock, Theodore Holmes. "Neuron doctrine and electrophysiology." Science 129:997-1002 (1959). This is the influential review which predicted the existence of nonspiking neurons: "[It would probably occasion little surprise] were someone to find a neuron which gave no all-or-none impulses but whose axon carried only graded and decrementally spreading activity. This may well be the primitive property, and it may well be retained in the many very short axoned neurons in the highest centers of both invertebrates and vertebrates."
Roberts, Alan, and Brian M. H. Bush, eds. Neurones Without Impulses. New York: Cambridge University Press (1981).
9 Aplysia, the Hare of the Ocean
Alkon, Daniel L. "Voltage-dependent calcium and potassium ion conductances: A contingency mechanism for an associative learning model." Science 205:81~816 (24 August 1979).
Darwin, Charles. The Voyage of the Beagle. 1839. New York: Bantam (reprinted, 1958). Aplysia quote on p. 5.
Graubard, Katherine. "Serial synapses in Aplysia." Journal of Neurobiology 9:325-328 (1978).
Hawkins, Robert D., Thomas W. Abrams, Thomas J. Carew, and Eric R. Kandel. "A cellular mechanism of classical conditioning in Aplysia: Activity-dependent amplification of presynaptic facilitation." Science 219:400-405 (28 January 1983).
Kandel, Eric R. Cellular Basis of Behavior. San Francisco: Freeman (1976).
Kandel, Eric R. "Cellular insights into behavior and learning." Harvey Lectures 73:19-92 (1979).
Kandel, Eric R. Behavioral Biology of Aplysia. San Francisco: Freeman (1979).
Siegelbaum, Steven A., Joseph S. Camardo, and Eric R. Kandel. "Serotonin and cyclic AMP close single K+ channels in Aplysia sensory neurons." Nature 299:413 -417 (30 September 1982)
Walters, Edgar T., and John H. Byrne. "Associative conditioning of single sensory neurons suggests a cellular mechanism for learning. Science 219:405-408 (28 January 1983).
10 Left Brain, Right Brain: Science or the New Phrenology?
Bradshaw, John L., and Norman C. Nettleton. "The nature of hemispheric specialization in man." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:51-91 (1981).
Dennis, Maureen D., and Harry A. Whitaker. "Language acquisition following hemidecortication: Linguistic superiority of the left over the right hemisphere." Brain and Language 3:404-433 (1976).
Falk, Dean. "Brain lateralization and its evolution in hominids." Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 30: 107-125 (1988).
Kolb, Bryan, and Ian Q. Whishaw. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology. New York: Freeman (1990, third edition).
Sperry, Roger. "Some effects of disconnecting the cerebral hemispheres." Science 217:1223 -1226 (24 September 1982). This is Professor Sperry's 1981 Nobel Prize lecture. He favors a different explanation for right-hemisphere language than I present here
Wiesel, Torsten N. "Postnatal development of the visual cortex and the influence of environment." Nature 299:583-591 (14 October 1982). This is Professor Wiesel's 1981 Nobel Prize lecture. It shows how the cortex starts off at birth with highly specific connections to the eye, and how experience modifies them.
11 What to Do About Tic Douloureux
Calvin, William H., John D. Loeser, and John F. Howe. "A neurophysiological theory for the pain mechanism of tic douloureux." Pain 3:25-41 (1977). A review of the tic puzzle and a detailed theory for a pain mechanism, involving demyelinated nerve and presynaptic inhibition steps.
Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann. Inside the Brain: Mapping the Cortex, Exploring the Neuron. New York: New American Library (1980). Better suited than the other references for the general reader. Chapters 12 and 13 have more background on neuralgias and present the multiple sclerosis version of tic douloureux.
Jannetta, Peter. "Microsurgical approach to the trigeminal nerve for tic douloureux. n Progress in Neurological Surgery 7:18~200 (1976). Dr. Jannetta, Professor of Neurological Surgery at the University of Pittsburgh, is primarily responsible for convincing the neurosurgical world that the artery was the typical problem; today, about six other major neurosurgical centers have also accumulated substantial experience with the artery-moving operation. He has also reported that a similar artery causes damage to other cranial nerves, giving rise to hemifacial spasm, glossophanngeal neuralgia, some types of vertigo and tinnitus, and some cases of high blood pressure.
Loeser, John D. "What to do about tic douloureux." Journal of the American Medical Association 239: 1153 -1155 (1978). A physician's guide to both the medical and surgical therapy of tic, written by my research collaborator John Loeser, Professor of Neurological Surgery at the University of Washington in Seattle, who has kindly allowed me to recycle his euphonious title; he disclaims all responsibility, however, for the doggerel verse which appeared one day, nailed to his offfice door. The article notes the precautions which must be taken when starting up drug treatment of tic: patients must have regular blood tests during their first year on carbamazepine (Tegretol is the trademarked pill), as a few individuals have slowly developed serious problems with white cell production.
Samii, M., and Peter J. Jannetta, eds. The Cranial Nerves. New York: Springer Verlag (1981). This book covers the arterial problems for the other cranial nerves in addition to the trigeminal.
Shelton, Mark L. Working in a Very Small Place. Viking (1989). An account of microsurgery, particularly that of Peter Jannetta.
Sweet, William H. "Treatment of facial pain by percutaneous differential thermal trigeminal rhizotomy." Progress in Neurological Surgery 7: 153-179 (1976). Dr. Sweet, Professor Emeritus at Harvard, is one of the leading tic researchers; he and others established the radiofrequency heat lesion ("poaching" only the smaller fibers in the nerve) as a safe and effective treatment for tic, many neurosurgical centers now having substantial experience with this new needle technique which has largely replaced the alcohol injection method.
12 The Woodrow Wilson Story
Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann. Inside the Brain: Mapping the Cortex, Exploring the Neuron. New York: New American Library (1980). Chapter 7 puts the Wilson story in the context of other right-brain functions and disorders.
Heilman, Kenneth M., and Edward Valenstein. Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press (1979).
Lynch, James C. "The functional organization of posterior parietal association cortex." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:485 -534
Smith, Gene. When the Cheering Stopped. New York: William Morrow (1964).
Tuchman, Barbara. The Zimmermann Telegram. New York: Random House (1966).
Weinstein, Edwin A. Woodrow Wilson: A Medical and Psychological Biography. Pnnceton: Princeton University Press (1981)
Weinstein, Edwin A. "Politics and health: the neurological history of Woodrow Wilson." Trends in the NeuroSciences 5(1):7 -9 (January
13 Thinking Clearly About Schizophrenia
Andreasen, Nancy C. "Brain imaging: Applications in psychiatry." Science 239:1381-1388 (1988).
Andreasen, Nancy C. The Broken Brain: The Biological Revolution in Psychiatry. Harper & Row (1984).
Crow, Timothy J. "What is wrong with dopaminergic transmission in schizophrenia?" Trends in NeuroSciences 2:52 -55 (February 1979).
Crow, Timothy J. "Two syndromes in schizophrenia?" Trends in NeuroSciences 5:351-354 (October 1982).
Gottesman, Irving I., James Shields, and Daniel Hanson. Schizophrenia the Ep~genetic Puzzle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Horrobin, David. "A singular solution for schizophrenia." New Scientist 85:642 -644 (28 February 1980)
Kety, Seymour S. "The biological substrates of abnormal mental states." Federation Proceedings 37:2267-2270 (1978).
14 Of Cancer Pain, Magic Bullets, and Humor
Bonica, John J. "Cancer pain." In Pain. Edited by John J. Bonica. New York: Raven Press, pp. 335-362 (1980).
Calvin, William H. "Ectopic firing from damaged nerve: chemosensitivity and mechanosensitivity, afterdischarge, and crosstalk." In Symposium on Idiopathic Low Back Pain. Edited by A. A. White III and S. L. Gordon. St. Louis: Mosby (1982). This reviews the basic mechanisms of neuralgias in general, including the demyelination pathophysiology thought to provide the trigger in tic.
Calvin, William H., Marshall Devor, and John F. Howe. "Can neuralgias arise from minor demyelination? Spontaneous firing, mechanosensitivity, and afterdischarge from conducting axons." Experimental Neurology 75:755 -763 (March 1982).
Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann. Inside the Brain: Mapping the Cortex Exploring the Neuron. New York: New American Library (1980). Placebo research is discussed on pp. 103 -105. See pp. 209-210 for an analysis of R and D percentages.
Cousins, Norman. "Back to Hippocrates." Saturday Review (February 1982): 12.
Diamond, Jack, Jose Ochoa, and William J. Culp. "An introduction to abnormal nerves and muscles as impulse generators." In Abnormal Nerves and Muscles as Impulse Generators. Edited by William J. Culp and Jose Ochoa, pp. 3-24. New York: Oxford University Press (1982).
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenaeus. Ethology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston (1975). Includes (at pp. 87-88) a modern discussion of bird behavior to cognitive mismatch.
Levine, J. B., N. C. Gordon, R. T. Jones, and H. L. Fields. "The narcotic antagonist naloxone enhances clinical pain." Nature 272:826-827 (27 April 1978).
Melzack, Ronald, and Patrick D. Wall. The Challenge of Pain. New York: Basic Books (1983).
Melzack, Ronald, Patrick D. Wall, and Tony C. Ty. "Acute pain in an emergency clinic: Latency of onset and descriptor patterns related to different injuries." Pain 14:33-43 (1982). Of patients with cuts, burns, and other skin injuries, 53 percent initially felt no pain; for deep tissue injuries such as sprains and fractures, the figure was 28 percent. The majority reported pain onset within one hour, but for some the delays were nine hours or more.
Wall, Patrick D. "On the relation of injury to pain. The John J. Bonica lecture." Pain 6:253-264 (1979). The quotation has been shortened and slightly paraphrased. His reference to the lassitude following hepatitis on p.263 was made with the incident described in Chapter 7 fresh in mind; fortunately, he also arrived in Jerusalem several days too late for the Thanksgiving feast.
Young, John Z. Doubt and Certainty in Science: A Biologist's Reflections on the Brain. New York: Oxford University Press (1960). An expanded edition of the 1950 Reith lectures given over the BBC.
15 Linguistics and the Brain's Buffer
Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language. 2d ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston (1978).
Hubel, David H. "Exploration of the primary visual cortex, 1955-1978." Nature 299:515-524 (7 October 1982). This Nobel Prize lecture is a very readable story of how nerve cell connections form "templates" for visual patterns and how a hierarchy of them leads to successive levels of abstraction.
Lumsden, Charles J., and Edward O. Wilson. Genes, Mind, and Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1981). Their figure on p. 59 is a useful summary of information-processing buffers.
Patterson, Francine, and Eugene Linden. The Education of Koko. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston (1981). Sign language taught to a gonlla.
Smith, Neil, and Deirdre Wilson. Modern Linguistics: The Results of Chomsky's Revolution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
16 Probing Language Cortex: The Second Wave
Calvin, William H., and George A. Ojemann. Inside the Brain: Mapping the Cortex, Exploring the Neuron. New York: New American Library (1980). Chapters 3 and 4 cover language physiology, chapter 5 covers part of the thalamic story, chapters 1 and 15 cover the epilepsy operation itself.
Calvin, William H., George A. Ojemann, and Arthur A. Ward, Jr "Human cortical neurons in epileptogenic foci: Comparison of in tenctal firing patterns to those of 'epileptic' neurons in animals." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 34:337-351
Calvin, William H ., and Charles F. Stevens. "Synaptic noise and other sources of randomness in motoneuron interspike intervals." Journal of Neurophysiology 31:574-587 (July 1968).
Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker. Norton (1986)
Efron, Robert. "Temporal perception, aphasia, and deja vu." Brain 86:403-424 (1963).
Fedio, Paul, and John Van Buren. "Memory deficits during electrical stimulation of speech cortex in conscious man." Brain and Language
Fried, Itzhak, George A. Ojemann, and Eberhard E. Fetz. "Languagerelated potentials specific to human language cortex." Science 212:353-356 (17 April 1981).
Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton (1981). Gould, Stephen Jay. "Tires to sandals." Natural History:8-15 (1989).
Liberman, A., F. Cooper, D. Shankweiler, and M. Studdert-Kennedy. "Perception of the speech code." Psychological Reviews 74:431-461 (1967).
Mateer, Catherine A., and Doreen Kimura. "Impairment of nonverbal oral movements in aphasia." Brain and Language 4:262-276 (1977).
Mateer, Catherine A., Samuel B. Polen, and George A. Ojemann. "Sexual variation in cortical localization of naming as determined by stimulation mapping." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:310-311 (1982).
Mateer, Catherine A., Samuel B. Polen, George A. Ojemann, and Allen R. Wyler. "Cortical localization of finger spelling and oral language: A case study." Brain and Language 17:46-57 (1982).
Ojemann, George A. "Brain mechanisms for language: observations during neurosurgery." In Epilepsy: A Window to Brain Mechanisms. Edited by Joan S. Lockard and New York: Raven Press (1980).
Ojemann, George A. "Interrelationships in the localization of language, memory, and motor mechanisms in human cortex and thalamus." In New Perspectives in Cerebral Localization. Edited by R. A. Thompson and John R. Green. New York: Raven Press (1982).
Ojemann, George A. "Brain organization for language from the perspective of electrical stimulation mapping." Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 6(2): 189-230 (1983).
Ojemann, George A., and Otto D. Creutzfeldt. "Language in humans and animals: contribution of brain stimulation and recording." In Handbook of Physiology. Section 1: The Nervous System, volume 5 part 2, The Higher Functions of the Brain, edited by Vernon B. Mounteastle, Fred Plum, and Steven R. Geiger. American Physiological Society (1987).
Ojemann, George A., and Catherine A. Mateer. "Human language cortex: localization of memory, syntax, and sequential motorphoneme identification systems." Science 205:1401-1403 (28 September 1979)
Ojemann, George A., and Harry Whitaker. "The bilingual brain." Archives of Neurology 35:409-412 (1978).
Penfield, Wilder, and P. Perot. "The brain's record of auditory and visual experience--a final summary and discussion." Brain 86:595 -696 (1963).
Penfield, Wilder, and Lamar Roberts. Speech and Brain Mechanisms.
Pöppel, Ernst. Mindworks:Time and Conscious Experience. New York Harcourt (1988).
Sherwin, Ira, and Robert Efron. "Temporal ordering deficits following anterior temporal lobectomy." Brain and Language 11 :195 -203 (1980).
Tallal, Paula, and Joyce Schwartz. "Temporal processing, speech perception, and hemispheric asymmetry." Trends in NeuroSciences 3:309 -311 (December 1980).
Tzeng, Ovid, J. L., and William S.-Y. Wang. "Search for a common neurocognitive mechanism for language and movements." American Journal of Physiology 246:R904-R911 (1984).
17 The Creation Myth, Updated: A Scenario for Humankind
Barash, David. The Whisperings Within: Evolution and the Origin of Human Nature. New York: Harper & Row (1979).
Cronin, J. E., N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, and Y. Rak. "Tempo and mode in hominid evolution." Nature 292:113-122 (1981).
Euler, Robert C., George J. Gumerman, Thor N. V. Karlstrom, Jeffrey S. Dean, and Richard H. Hevly. "The Colorado plateau: Cultural dynamics and paleoenvironment." Science 205:1089-1101 (14 September 1979). An example of neolithic population boom-and-bust in a marginal, fluctuating environment. Add to this picture the more isolating environmental vicissitudes of the Ice Ages every 100,000 years, and you will have a notion of the way natural selection affected hominids with minimal technology, especially those on the fringes of the more favored tropical populations
Goodall, Jane van Lawick. "The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream preserve." Animal Behaviour Monographs 1(3):161-311 (1968).
Gould, Stephen Jay. Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1977).
Gould, Stephen Jay, and Elizabeth Vrba. "Exaptation--a missing term in the science of form." Paleobiology 8:4-15 (1982).
Gribbin, John, and Jeremy Cherfas. The Monkey Puzzle: Reshaping the Evolutionary Tree. New York: Pantheon (1982).
Hamburg, David A., and Elizabeth R. McCown, eds. The Great Apes, volume 5 in Perspectives on Human Evolution. Menlo Park, Calif Benjamin/Cummings (1979).
Harding, Robert S. O., and Gza Teleki, eds. Omnivorous Primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press (1981). The "hunting hypothesis" about cooperative social hunting of big game--what I irreverently called Sergeant Pepper's Big Game Hunting Band, and quite different from the solitary hunting of small game which I emphasize in chapters 1 and 4--is often thought to point up a critical factor in human evolution; the editors of this book also believe this much-discussed hypothesis to be of exaggerated importance.
Herskovits, Melville J. Man and his Works. New York: A. A. Knopf (1952), pp. 68-69. The Cherokee creation myth is from the unpublished field work of F. M. Olbrechts of Belgium.
Jerison, Harry. Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. New York: Academic Press (1973).
Johanson, Donald, and Maitland Edey. Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. New York: Simon & Schuster (1981).
Klima, E., and Ursula Bellugi. The Signs of Language. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1979).
Konner, Melvin. The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston (1982).
Lieberman, Philip. "Voice in the wilderness: how humans acquired the power of speech." The Sciences 28(4):23-29 (1988).
Lovejoy, C. Owen. "The origin of man." Science 211 :341-350 (23 January 1981). See Johanson and Edey, Chapter 16, for more on Lovejoy's use of K-selection and locomotion considerations.
Lumsden, Charles J., and Edward O. Wilson. Genes, Mind, and Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1981).
Mayr, Ernst. The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1982).
Montagu, Ashley. "Toolmaking, hunting, and the origin of language." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280:266-274 (1976).
Ostrom, J. H. "Archaeopteryx and the origin of flight." Quarterly Review of Biology 49:27-47 (1974). Konner (1982) tells an interesting story from his student days, about visiting one of the experts on this earliest tetrapod with feathered wings thought to be the link between reptiles and birds: "What he finally said was that he thought archaeopteryx was very much like people. This of course puzzled me, as it was calculated to do, and when I pressed him to explain, he said: 'Well, you know, it's such a transitional creature. It's a pisspoor reptile, and it's not very much of a bird."'
Parker, Sue Taylor, and Kathleen Rita Gibson. "A developmental model for the evolution of language and intelligence in early hominids." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:367-408 (1979). See also follow-up comments in June 1982 issue.
Passingham, Richard E. The Human Primate. New York: Oxford University Press (1982).
Sarnat, Harvey B., and Martin G. Netsky, Evolution of the Nervous System. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press (1981).
Silman, R. E., R. M. Leone, R. J. L. Hooper, and M. A. Preece "Melaton~n, the pineal gland, and human puberty." Nature 282:301
Tanner, James M. Foetus into Man: Physical Growth from Conception to Maturity. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1978) Teleh, Geza. "The omnivorous chimp." Scientific American 228(1):32-42
de Waal, Frans. Chimpanzee Politics. New York: Harper & Row (1983). Some evidence suggesting that chimp social life is comparable to that of humans.
Young, John Z. "The pineal gland." Philosophy 48:7~74 (1973).
Young, John Z. The Life of Vertebrates. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press (1981). See Chapter 24, "The Origin of Man."
The Throwing Madonna:
Essays on the Brain (McGraw-Hill 1983, Bantam 1991) is a group of 17 essays: The Throwing Madonna; The Lovable Cat: Mimicry Strikes Again; Woman the Toolmaker? Did Throwing Stones Lead to Bigger Brains? The Ratchets of Social Evolution; The Computer as Metaphor in Neurobiology; Last Year in Jerusalem; Computing Without Nerve Impulses; Aplysia, the Hare of the Ocean; Left Brain, Right Brain: Science or the New Phrenology? What to Do About Tic Douloureux; The Woodrow Wilson Story; Thinking Clearly About Schizophrenia; Of Cancer Pain, Magic Bullets, and Humor; Linguistics and the Brain's Buffer; Probing Language Cortex: The Second Wave; and The Creation Myth, Updated: A Scenario for Humankind. Note that my throwing theory for language origins (last 3 essays) has nothing to do with the title essay: THE THROWING MADONNA is a parody (involving maternal heartbeat sounds!) on the typically-male theories of handedness.
Many libraries have it (try the OCLC on-line listing, which cryptically shows the libraries that own a copy), and used bookstores may have either the 1983 or the 1991 edition.
- Powell's Books in Portland lists used copies in their web database.
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